Studies of some measures to reduce road dust emissions from paved roads in Scandinavia
In this paper we present quantitative assessments of different measures to reduce the PM10 levels along streets in Scandinavian cities based on tests in Stockholm. The effect of the use of studded tyres on concentrations in a street canyon has been quantitatively assessed using monitoring data.
A 10% decrease in the fraction of studded tyres was estimated to reduce the weekly average street canyon PM10 levels (due to local road abrasion) by about 10 mgm 3 if only daytime and dry street conditions were considered. These results are obtained by correlating the increase in PM10 levels during autumn with the increased use of studded tyres. Since the share of studded tyres is around 75% in Stockholm during wintertime, the peak springtime PM10 levels that occur during dry road conditions would be substantially lower if the use of studded tyres were regulated.
Intense sweeping or washing of the pavements resulted in marginal reductions (o10%) and will have no important influence on the PM10 levels with the methodologies and working machineries tested here. Application of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA, Ice Away, as 25% water solution) on the road surface of a highway during dry conditions resulted in an average reduction of around 35% in the daily PM10 averages. The most efficient way to reduce PM10 levels in the long-term and for a large area is to reduce the use of studded tyres, while application of CMA may be efficient to reduce peak levels, which frequently occur during dry road conditions in spring.